Resistance of petst and diseases to pesticides in fruit crops
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Author: Milena Dimova, Nedyalka Palagacheva, Vasilliy Dzhuvinov
The Review traces the problem of resistance of diseases and pests in fruit trees to pesticides used to protect the crop during the growing season. This resistance is defined as a natural phenomenon expressed by reduced susceptibility of the population undergoing treatment with fungicides and insecticides that have been previously effective and the control of diseases and pests has been positive. The nature of this phenomenon is a selection by which resistant individuals appear having survived chemical treatment. This resistance is inherited in the next generation which has acquired genetic resistance to one or more pesticides. Historically, in 1962 two pests were found to have developed resistance to DDT in the USA, and later resistance to methoxychlor, lindane, organophosphates, carbamates and synthetic pyrethroids was reported. As a result of the increased use of chemicals in agriculture in the 40`s in the USA, the losses caused by that resistance were 7% and in the 80`s and 90`s of the 20th century, they reached over 13%. Since 1945, resistent pests in agricultural production there numbered about 1,000 species. The resistance of Venturia inaequalis to dodin, anilino-pyrimidines, strobilurins and triazole fungicides is known, as well as that of the codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.) to some insecticides and of the peach aphid (Myzuspersicae Sulz) to neonicotinoids, etc.