Viticulture is a traditional subsector of Bulgarian agriculture, providing employment and income to a large number of families in rural regions. The differences in the environmental and climatic conditions in the separate parts of the country exert influence both on its production potential and on its specialization and concentration. The purpose of this research is, on the basis of the results from the analysis of the general state, production specialization and concentration, to determine institutional opportunities for public support to the subsector. The survey was implemented between March and June 2015 within the student group for scientific investigations at the Department of Economics and encompasses the pre-accession period and membership of Bulgaria in the European Union. The results from the study showed the existence of significant regional variations in Bulgarian viticulture during the investigated period. They were related both to the general decline of vineyards in the area and to changes in the production structure of the subsector.